The Diaspora encompasses a group of people who can either trace their origins to India or who are Indian citizens living abroad, either temporarily or permanently. It includes Non-Resident Indians (NRIs), Persons of Indian Origin (PIOs) and Overseas Citizens of India (OCI). PIO and OCI card holders were merged under OCI category in 2015.
Overseas Citizen of India
An person with an OCI status is not a citizen of India. In India the person has no voting rights, nor is he able to contest elections or hold any constitutional office. Nevertheless, an Indian Overseas citizen is entitled to other privileges, such as a multi-entry, multi-purpose, life-long visa to enter India. They are excluded from reporting to the police for any period of stay in the country. They are also given all rights, except the right to purchase agricultural or plantation property, in accordance with NRIs.
An Indian citizen who lives normally outside India and holds an Indian Passport. A person is considered NRI if, during the financial year, he / she is not in India for 182 days or more; if he / she is in India for less than 365 days in the four years previous to that year and less than 60 days in that year. During the British rule Indian example of large-scale migration started as indentured laborers to former colonies such as Fiji, Kenya and Malaysia (also known as Girmitiya people). The Indian diaspora today number more than 20 million , representing the complete multiplicity, diversity of the rich social, national, and cultural tapestry of the land of its birth.
Importance of Overseas Indian
In terms of remittances, one of the greatest benefits of engaging with the 30 million-strong Indian Diaspora was. Remittances close to $69 billion make an invaluable contribution through support for socio-economic development, poverty reduction and changes in rural consumption behaviour. Due to the strong cultural and emotional feelings they nurture, NRIs are more prone to donating to domestic charities. Diaspora acts as ‘agents of change’ to facilitate and enhance investment, speed up industrial development and boost international trade and tourism. Another significant long-term gain in cultivating relations with an active diaspora is an accelerated technological sector.
A less tangible but significant advantage of having a large group of emigrants is “diaspora diplomacy” and they act as “bridge-builders” between their home and adopted countries. Indo-US Civil Nuclear Deal is a case in point, as American ethnic Indians successfully lobbied for the N-deal to be clinched. Less-skilled labor migration (especially to West Asia) has also helped bring down disguised unemployment in India. Skilled labor migration to foreign countries and their subsequent success improved the image of the country. Diaspora’s motives to invest in India are in contrast to non-diaspora FDI. Their investments are long lasting as many of them wish to establish a long-term base in India.
Bilateral relations between India and Malaysia-
India established diplomatic relations with the Federation of Malaya (predecessor state of Malaysia) in 1957.
India and Malaysia have enjoyed friendly ties, traditionally. There have been frequent high-level exchanges between the two countries’ leaders, including, most recently, Prime Minister Mohd of Malaysia. Najib to India from 19 to 23 January 2010 and to Malaysia from 26 to 28 October 2010 the Indian Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh. In October 2010 the two prime ministers decided to establish a bilateral strategic partnership which envisages long-term and strategic development of a multi-faceted relationship. Malaysia’s Prime Minister Mohd. Najib visited India from 20-21 December, 2012 to attend the ASEAN-India Commemorative Summit in New Delhi. He was accompanied by Foreign Minister, Minister of International Trade & Industry and Minister in the Prime Minister’s Department.
India’s Minister for External Affairs, Shri S.M. Krishna, visited Malaysia on 2-5 May 2011 to co-chair the 5th Joint Commission meeting with his counterpart, Foreign Minister Dato Seri Anifah Aman. During this visit, he also met with the Malaysian premier and home minister. Further information on the visit of the Minister for External Affairs can be found on the High Commission of India website. Other high level Ministerial visits from India in 2010 – 2011 included those by the Deputy Chairman Planning Commission in September 2010, The Minister of Road Transport and Highways in December 2010, the Minister of Commerce and Industry in February 2011 to signal the Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA), the Minister of New and Renewable Energy in September 2011, the Minister of State for Textiles in November 2011, the Minister of State for Finance in July 2012 to release India International Bank and GIC-Re workplace in Kuala Lumpur, the Minister of State for Road Transport & Highways in November, 2012 to flag-off the ASEAN-India Car Rally 2012 at Putrajaya and to supply key-note deal with at ASEAN-India Connectivity Summit and the Minister of Overseas Indian Affairs in December 2012 and the Minister of Agriculture and Food Processing Industries in September 2013 to wait the 3rd ASEAN-India Ministerial Meeting on Agriculture & Forestry.
Malaysian Deputy Prime Minister Tan Sri Muhyiddin bin Yassin paid an official go to to India from 8 to thirteen March 2011, during which he met with the Prime Minister, the External Affairs Minister, the Minister of Road Transport and Highways and Minister of HRD. Other high level site visitors from Malaysia in 2011 covered the Minister for Science, Technology and Innovation visited India in February 2011, the Minister of Works in February 2011, Minister of Health in March 2011 and Minister for International Trade and Industry in March 2011, and the Minister of Finance II in October 2011, Minister of Plantation Industries and Commodities in June 2012, Minister of Natural Resources and the Environment in October 2012 to wait the 11th Conference of Parties (COP-11) to the Convention on Bio-diversity (CBD) in Hyderabad., Minister of Agriculture in October 2012 to wait the 2nd Meeting of the ASEAN-India Agricultural Ministers on co-operation in Agriculture and Forestry at New Delhi and ASEAN-India Agri Expo prepared on the National Agriculture Science Centre(NASC) Complex, New Delhi, Minister of Energy, Green Technology and Water in November 2012 to attend the Meeting of Ministers of Renewable Energy of India and ASEAN nations held at New Delhi, Deputy Foreign Minister in February 2013 to wait the Delhi Dialogue-V.
The sides additionally hold ordinary consultations between the two Foreign Ministries at the extent of Secretary / Secretary General. Both international locations have agreed in principle to establish a mechanism for cooperation on counter-terrorism. A bilateral Extradition Treaty turned into signed in January 2010 and a Treaty on Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters become signed in March 2012.
India-Malaysia defence family members have steadily grown over the years. A MOU on Defence Cooperation turned into signed in 1993. The Malaysian Defence Minister Dato Seri Mohd. Najib (now PM) had visited India in 2006 and Indian Defence Minister Shri A.K Anthony visited Malaysia in January 2008.Malaysia-Indian Defence Cooperation meetings at the level of Defence Secretary from Indian aspect and Secretary General from Malaysian facet are held frequently; the tenth assembly of the MIDCOM turned into held in Jun 2013 at New Delhi in India; The Staff Talks among the 3 Services are being held regularly. Service Chiefs from both international locations have frequently exchanged visits. From India, the Chief of Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal NAK Browne, PVSM, AVSM, VM, ADC made an official visit to Malaysia in February 2012; the Chief of Naval Staff, Admiral DK Joshi, PVSM, AVSM, YSM, VSM, ADC visited Malaysia in Sep 2013. From Malaysia, the Chief of Army & Chief of Navy visited India in April 2012. An IAF Training Team became deployed in Malaysia from February 2008 to September 2010 to teach Malaysian pilots on the Sukhoi-30MKM. India participates often inside the biennial LIMA exhibition. Malaysia participates inside the biennial MILAN occasion frequently. RMN participated in MILAN in February 2012 with one RMN Vessel and one Commander Naval Area; Indian Navy and Coast Guard vessels make everyday friendly port calls every 12 months at Malaysian ports. India is also participating inside the Cooperative Mechanism on the Straits of Malacca and Singapore (SOMS) and contributed to 2 of the six IMO Projects (Project 1 and Project 4) for enhancement of navigational safety and environmental safety in the Straits. More information are to be had in this website under the top India and Malaysia.
Economic and Commercial Cooperation:
Economic and commercial relations are emerging as the mainstay of the bilateral relationship. Malaysia is the third biggest trading accomplice for India inside ASEAN, and India is the most important trading accomplice for Malaysia from many of the nations of the South, with the exception of China. With the entry-into-force of the Malaysia-India Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) as a unmarried challenge protecting goods, services, investment and other areas of cooperation, on 1 July 2011, the bilateral financial engagement is expected to get a in addition fillip. Click Here to view CECA Agreement.
The two sides have ratified the Revised Double Taxation Agreement, which become signed in May 2012 and a MoU on Cooperation in the Field of Customs has been signed on 13.06.2013.
The first-ever India-Malaysia CEOs Forum, comprising 18 CEOs from each facets, was jointly released on 27 October 2010 by using Prime Ministers Dr. Manmohan Singh and Dato’ Seri Mohd Najib to expand enhanced partnership and cooperation at the commercial enterprise level. The Second and Third meetings of the CEOs Forum happened in Mumbai and Kuala Lumpur on 20 May 2011 and 22 November 2011 respectively. The fourth assembly of the Forum became held in Johor Bahru on 08 June 2012. The fifth assembly of the Forum became held in New Delhi on 19 December, 2012.
Bilateral alternate has increased from US$0.6 billion in 1992 to US$13.32 billion in 2012. The exchange has more than doubled from US$five billion to US$13.32 billion between 2005 and 2012. In 2012, bilateral alternate has proven a increase of 7.three% yr-on-12 months to reach US$13.three billion (compared to US$ 12.5 billion for the year 2011). Trade remains considerably imbalanced in favour of Malaysia (India’s exports are US$ three.83 billion, Malaysian exports are US$ 9.5 billion). As according to Indian statistics, the corresponding figures of bilateral alternate in Jan-Dec 2012 were US $ 13.89 billion. India’s exports to Malaysia had been worth US $ 3.seventy eight billion and India’s imports from Malaysia have been well worth US $ 10.10 billion (Source: Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics, Ministry of Commerce & Industry, India). The bilateral exchange stood at US $ 11.29 billion for the period Jan.- Oct. 2013 registering an increase of 2.40% over the corresponding figure for Jan.- Oct. 2012, viz. US $ 11.02 billion.
Based on direct investments Malaysia is the 19th largest investor in India with cumulative FDI inflows worth US$ 618.37 million from April 2000 to September 2013. In addition, extra than US$ 6 billion in Malaysian investments are believed to be invested in India via the third usa route. Notable among those are Maxis Communications in Aircel, Axiata in IDEA Cellular Ltd, Khazanah in IDFC, Apollo Hospitals, Yes Bank, etc. The largest presence of Malaysian production agencies outside Malaysia is in India. They have finished 72 creation projects worth US$ 3.27 billion in India, whilst 17 projects worth 2.376 billion are underneath numerous levels of implementation. Under a partnership with Malaysian Airports, GMR finished airport in Hyderabad in 2008, and the second one in Delhi in July 2010.
Indian organizations have invested about US $ 2.05 billion (from 1980 to August 2013). Indian groups that made major acquisitions encompass Reliance Industries Limited, Ballarpur Industries Limited, Larsen & Toubro and WIPRO. There are over one hundred Indian organizations which includes 70 Indian joint ventures working in Malaysia. In addition, there are extra than 50 Indian IT companies operating from Malaysia. IRCON International Ltd. Has been actively engaged within the development of railways in Malaysia considering 1988, and it has effectively completed a double tracking project (Seremban – Gemas) really worth over US $1billion on 31st July 2013.Further details of bilateral monetary cooperation are also available in the India and Malaysia phase of the website.
Tourism & Connectivity:
Air hyperlinks have improved drastically following a bilateral agreement in 2007 to progressively increase the seat capability to six essential destinations in India and a provision for multiple locations and designating any variety of airlines to function on the India–Malaysia routes. At present, there are 114 flights between countries, of which ninety three are operated by way of Malaysian airlines and 21 with the aid of Indian airways. Regular meeting of the Civil Aviation Ministries are held to liberalize the connectivity, and the ultimate assembly changed into held in Kuala Lumpur in October 2011. India is the sixth largest source united states of america for inbound tourism to Malaysia with approximately 691,271 Indian travelers traveling Malaysia in 2012. Malaysia is the tenth biggest source u . S . A . for foreign travelers travelling India with almost 150,000 Malaysians touring India in 2012. With the signing of the MoU for cooperation in the area of tourism, there would be greater people-to-people touch and also greater go with the flow of tourists from both the countries.
There are about 150,000 Indian workers in Malaysia in both the skilled and semi-skilled category. This includes about 10,000 expatriates who are employed in IT, manufacturing, banking, etc. A bilateral MoU on Employment and Welfare of Workers signed in January 2009 establishes an institutional framework to deal with issues concerning Indian workers. Three Joint Working Group meetings at the Secretary-level have been held in March 2009, April 2010 and April 2012.
Education & Cultural Cooperation:
About 2000 Indian students are analyzing in Malaysia, even as an estimated 3000 Malaysian college students are studying in India. An MOU on Higher Education was signed on 20 January 2010 for the duration of Prime Minister Dato’ Seri Najib’s visit to India. India offers about 30 slots under ITEC and 25 below the Colombo Plan. A new Indian Cultural Centre (ICC) has been opened in Kuala Lumpur on 10 February 2010 to promote cultural family members with Malaysia. A Cultural Exchange Programme (CEP) for 2010-13 changed into signed on 27 October 2010 throughout the visit of Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh to Malaysia.
People-to-People exchanges have additionally multiplied with the signing of the Cultural Exchange Programme for 2010 – 2013; with the establishment of an Indian Cultural Centre in Kuala Lumpur in February 2011; with the establishment of a Joint ICT Talent Development Committee in February 2011; and with the preserving of the 2d bilateral Joint Committee for Science & Technology in July 2011. The Parliament of India has constituted an India-Malaysia Parliamentary Friendship Group headed through Shri Lalji Tandon MP as its President in October 2011. The 150th start anniversary of Rabindarnath Tagore become additionally marked in May – June 2011 with the aid of several occasions in Malaysia.
Regional and Multilateral: India and Malaysia cooperate in a number of multilateral and regional foras including UN, NAM, WTO, ASEAN, ARF, East Asia Summit (EAS), Commonwealth, Indian Ocean Rim for Regional Economic Cooperation, etc.
Persons of Indian Origin (PIOs):
Malaysia has one of the largest communities of Persons of Indian Origin in the world, numbering close to 2 million (about 8% of Malaysia’s population). The overwhelming numbers are Tamil speaking, with significant people speaking Telugu, Malayalam and Punjabi also. The Malaysian Indian Congress is the dominant political organization of the PIOs since pre-independence, and a member of the ruling coalition since independence, but of late several other political organizations have also emerged. Today there are good number of Members of Parliament and Ministers of the State Governments of Indian origin from both the ruling and opposition parties. Malaysia have been sending one of the largest contingents to the annual Pravasi Bharatiya Divas events since its inception in 2001, and five Malaysians – Dato Seri S. Samy Vellu, Tan Sri Somasundaram, Tan Sri Vadiveloo, Tan Sri Ajit Singh and Tan Sri Datuk Ravindran Menon have been honoured with the Pravasi Bharatiya Samman Award.
Malaysia’s Indians face growing racial hostility-
The Indian groups in Peninsular Malaysia originated in colonial times, in which they were able to establish themselves socio-economically and grow to be lively participant’s within the region’s productivity. However, given that Malaysian independence, the Indian community had been laid low with institutionalized discrimination, social segregation, or even violence. As the years pass, Malaysia is becoming more and more hostile in the direction of its Indian population. Many Malaysians hoped that the 2018 fashionable election would trade these realities, in particular after UMNO – the political celebration ruling the country all through its history – lost. Yet, newly re-elected Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad now not best stored discriminatory laws however delivered new ones.
In 1969, racial tensions erupted in a chain of violent national riots wherein indigenous Malaysians (Malays) targeted the Indian and Chinese groups, culminating with the deaths of hundreds and postponing the government for 2 years. In the aftermath, the Malaysian government initiated the New Economic Plan (NEP), which institutionalized affirmative motion measures that supply Muslim Malays less difficult access to housing, jobs, medical care, and education. The NEP became supposed to reduce the socio-financial gap between the Indian community – characterised on the time as extra educated, employed and urban – and the Muslim Malays who were more rural. In practice, the NEP suspended the participation of non-Malays in the economic system and avoided newcomers from playing upward social mobility.
While Malays control the authorities and the Chinese dominate business, Indians complain they’re at the lowest of the society with little wealth, training or job possibilities because of authorities regulations that give preferential remedy to Malays. Many Indians nevertheless do menial labor comparable in nature to what the British added them to Malaysia to do. Reporting from Rinching, about 50 kilometers from Kuala Lumpur, Vijay Joshi of Associated Press wrote: “With a small knife, plantation employee Ramalingam Tirumalai makes uncooked incisions on the rubber trees each morning to harvest the oozing gooey latex. Just just like the gashes on the trees, Ramalingam says, countless wounds had been inflicted by using Malaysia’s government at the usa’s ethnic Indian minority, denying them jobs, education, freedom of faith and most of all dignity.”
While Malays manage the government and the Chinese dominate business, Indians complain they’re at the lowest of the society with little wealth, schooling or job possibilities because of authorities guidelines that give preferential remedy to Malays
Despite the country’s veneer of racial concord and opportunity for all, many inside the Indian community have limited get entry to to housing, training and jobs. About 54% of Malaysian Indians paintings on plantations or as urban laborers, and their wages have not stored up with the times. Nearly half of of the 2.6 million Indians in Malaysia are at the lowest of the income ladder, in step with Yayasan Pemulihan Social (YPS). Professor KS Nathan of the National University of Malaysia said that urban poverty, inequality, undocumented Indians, and a lack of educational opportunities are amongst the problems that require serious attention. “Problems arise because of the shortage of opportunities, access, popularity and self-esteem,” he stated.
Indians lag behind different ethnic agencies by way of almost all measures. Though they form just 7% of the full population, they account for 63% of these arrested under the Emergency Ordinance for violent crimes. They also constitute 41% of beggars and 20% of toddler abusers. Indians rank lowest in country wide elementary-college examinations; approximately one in each 12 Indian youngsters does not even attend number one college. Indians, says political scientist P Ramasamy, have emerge as “the new underclass.”
Even though the Malaysian constitution states that everyone is loose to exercise the faith of their choosing, the government actively assaults non-Islamic expressions. Over the past few years, Malaysian government demolished masses of Hindu temples – some of which existed earlier than Malaysian independence. According to Associated Press, a 15-month old baby become confiscated from a Muslim who transformed to Hinduism. The mother changed into imprisoned in a non secular rehabilitation center for humans who “transgressed” towards Islam. Malaysia’s rising Islamization has instilled xenophobia in the population, dividing the usa along religious lines, resulting in clashes along with the 2001 Kampung Medan riots, in addition to protests over racial discrimination and temple demolitions throughout the 2007 HINDRAF rally. During a protest against the relocation of a Hindu temple to a Muslim-majority neighborhood, around 50 Malays stomped on a cow’s head.
This kingdom of affairs isn’t always going to trade, notwithstanding promises made by politicians, specifically Mahathir. As part of his marketing campaign for re-election and due to constituencies’ pressure, Mahathir pledged to ratify a UN convention against racial discrimination following a backlash from businesses who argued that it would dilute privileges Malays have loved for decades, but he reversed his pledge after the election. Malaysia’s Indian network isn’t stupid. Many found out long in the past that they may be now not welcome in Malaysia and even if they were, they face intense problems in their daily lives, no longer to say upward social mobility. For these reasons, nearly half of university graduates emigrate. Mahathir finds various ways to expel the Malaysian Indian community from Malaysia, despite being in the region before Malaysia.
Ties between India and Malaysia have shown a marked upswing in recent years giving economic cooperation stronger roots. India is keen on building stronger political, economic and strategic ties with Malaysia. In recent years, Indian firms have moved to Malaysia in a big way, making it a base to do business with other ASEAN countries. With respect to counter-terrorism, Malaysia has been greatly successful in countering radicalization and terrorism which is another area from where India can draw critical points. Thus, there is a good potential for both the countries to further their relationship on various fronts.
Article Written By- Divyanshi
Law Student–Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National law university
(HRDI Work From Home Internship)
 Indian Diaspora; available at-https://www.drishtiias.com/to-the-points/Paper2/indian-diaspora
 Malaysia’s Indians face growing racial hostility – Asia Times; available at-https://asiatimes.com/2019/06/malaysias-indians-face-growing-racial-hostility/